Jean-Baptiste Armand Guillaumin was born on February 16, 1841 in Paris, France. He worked at a relative's lingerie shop and for a French government railway. In 1861 he enrolled in the Académie Suisse. There he met Paul Cézanne and Camille Pissarro with whom he maintained lifelong friendships. While he never achieved the recognition of these two, his influence on their work was significant. Cézanne attempted his first etching based on Guillaumins paintings of barges on the River Seine.
Guillaumin exhibited at the Salon des Refusés in 1863 and later became a friend of Vincent van Gogh whose brother, Theo sold some of his works.
Major museums around the world display Guillaumin's art. He is best remembered for his landscapes of Paris and the area near the Mediterraneran coast in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France.
Armand Guillaumin died on June 26, 1927 in Orly just south of Paris.