What happened in the 17th century ?
# Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.
# Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England in 1603.
# The Thirty Years' War in Europe (1618 - 1648).
# James I of England institutes the baronetage as a means of raising money.
# Scottish and English Protestants sent to colonize Ireland, as reaction to Catholicism there.
# The English Civil War (1642 - 1651).
# The Manchu conquer the Chinese Ming Dynasty and begin the Qing Dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, in 1644.
# The Dutch republic known as the United Provinces became the dominant economic and political power in Europe, gaining formal independence from Spain in 1648. It also underwent crashes, e.g. the windhandel in tulips led to many bankruptcies in 1637.
# The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602, embarking on colonial expansion based on shareholdership rather than royal control. Dutch merchant ships sail all over the world, leading to the "Golden Age of the Dutch Republic".
# The Deluge (1648 - 1667): series of wars and civil wars in Poland with Sweden, Russia, Brandenburg and Transylvania which caused Poland to lose power status and began rise of Russia to power status.
# The Great Turkish war is fought between the Ottoman Empire and a Holy League formed to oppose it, lasts between 1683 and 1699. It started with another Battle of Vienna and ended with a major defeat of the Ottomans.
# The Russo-Turkish Wars start.